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Nano-Safety Research Group

Specialists in the assessment of nanomaterial toxicity to human health and the environment

Kai Paul

Kai profileKai studied a BSc in Sports Biology at the University of the West of England and currently a member of the Society of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicity (SETAC) and The Society of Biology. Kai moved on to work as an assistant demonstrator within human physiology and pharmacology. At the same time Kai worked on the toxicity and transport of nanoparticles across a model placental cell line, a NanoTEST funded project (EU Commision FP7), at the Bristol Initiative for Research of Child Health (BIRCH) (now published as part of the larger work by the group). The work at BIRCH has also been presented and invited to be presented at several conferences.


Kai’s research at Heriot-Watt University is currently focused on the environmental impact of nanomaterials using the model organism Daphnia magna within the consortium for nanomaterial bioavailability and Environmental behaviour (NanoBEE) funded with NERC and the USEPA.The aim of the work is to establish common themes in nanomaterial fate and behaviour, both biologically and within the environment, and there associated toxicity. This is in order to produce practical regulatory frameworks and risk assessments. The study at Heriot-Watt focuses on lethality, sub-lethal (biochemical and reproductive), uptake and depuration tests. The data will lead to the creation of critical modelling values (e.g. lethal accumulation 50, KdandLog Kvalues) for use with the biodynamic and biotic ligand models. This coupled with in depth characterisation of the nanomaterial will hopefully lead to working in silico models for nanoparticle/ nanomaterial safety assessment. The work has already been presented at several conferences, SETAC Europe Glasgow 2013 (Poster) and at SETAC UK Plymouth 2013 (platform presentation).



Carreira SC, Walker L,  Paul K, &  Saunders M (online 2013). The toxicity, transport and uptake of nanoparticles in thein vitroBeWo b30 placental cell barrier model used within NanoTEST. Nanotoxicology [online 3/9/13]


  • Prof. Teresa Fernandes (School of Life Sciences, Heriot-Watt University)
  • Prof Vicki Stone (School of Life Sciences, Heriot-Watt University)


Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)


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